|• The revolution of 1911 that toppled the Manchu Dynasty and established the Republic of China brought problems for the Buddhist Sangha. To combat these trends arose a remarkable monk, T’ai-hsu (1898-1947) who was able to rally his fellow religionists and to initiate a program of reform. On the national scale he organised a Chinese Buddhist Society in 1929.
• A revival of the Idealistic School was initiated by the publication in 1901of the Ch’eng-wei-shih-lun (Notes on the Completion of the Idealistic Doctrine) of K’uei-chi, long lost in China but brought back from Japan. The leader of this revival was the layman Ou-yang Chien, and the Institute of Inner Learning, which he organised in Naking (Nanjing) in 1922.
• Hsu Yun, Ch’an Master (1840-1959) ‘Universally regarded as the most outstanding Buddhist of the Chinese Sangha in the modern era’ (Richard Hunn). Dharma successor of all five Ch’an schools; main reformer in Chinese Buddhism revival (1900-50).
• Wong Mou-Lam translated the The Platform Sutra into English and founded the journalChinese Buddhism (1930).
• (1898-1978) Upasaka Lu K’uan Yu (Charles Luk) Translator and Writer on Ch’an. Born in Canton. Lived in exile in Hong Kong.
• The official formation of the Chinese Buddhist Association by the government of the People’s Republic of China on May 30th, 1953.
• The Cultural Revolution (1965-75) Buddhist temples and monasteries were sacked and the already weakened Sangha was further depleted. The excesses of this time have since been regretted, however, and a more liberal policy introduced.
• Ven. Cheng Yen founds Tzu Chi Compassion Relief Association (1966) and Tzu Chi Compassion Foundation (1980).